🌻Submersible pumps

Pumps are an essential device used to move fluids by mechanical action. It converts electrical energy into hydraulic energy. Pumps are used to move fluids, including liquid, gas, and slurries. Pumps were an early invention.

The most rapid pumps were used to draw water. Some of them were Persian and Roman water wheels. Archimedes screw was a more sophisticated pump.

There are many types of pumps available. This article will attempt to assist in understanding the working and function of the submersible pump.

We shall begin with a basic understanding of the pump and its types before submerging ourselves into submersible pumps.

🌻What are pumps?

Pumps are devices that use energy to raise, transport, or compress fluids through a piping system and increase the pressure of the liquid.

It is a hydraulic machine that converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. There are two types of pumps. One is an electric pump, and the other is Positive displacement pumps.

🌻Dynamic pumps

These pumps make use of make use of centrifugal force to create velocity in the liquid. Pumps use an impeller that rotates to suck out the air creating vacuum driving the liquid. The pump impeller, which rotates in the housing, reduces the pressure of the inlet.

This pressure difference pumps the low viscosity fluid throughout the plant. They are designed to handle only low viscosity fluids.

🌻There are 5 types of dynamic pumps.

• Centrifugal
• Vertical centrifugal pump
• Horizontal centrifugal pump
Submersible pump
• Fire hydrant

🌻Positive displacement pumps

Positive displacement pumps make use of piston and a cavity where the fluid is allowed to enter and leave. These pumps are made to push high viscosity fluids. Positive displacement pumps are of 5 types too. These are

• Diaphragm
• Gear
• Peristaltic
• Lobe
• Piston

Since the topic is on submersible pumps, we will dwell on it only. The article will give a glimpse of its workings, its types, applications, advantages, and disadvantages.

In the Year 1928, Armais Aruntunoff, an engineer in Oil Delivery System, invented a Submersible Pump. It was installed in the oil field and was called a submersible oil pump. Pleuger Pumps established its design in 1929.

🌻How does a submersible pump work?

The submersible pump is an electrical power pump. As the name suggests, it is used by fully submerging it. It does not have contact with the fluid it is pushing.

An electric motor is connected firmly to the pump. The electric motor is sealed and made completely airtight (hermetically). The motors are close-coupled to the body of the pump. The motors are covered with compartments which are filled with oil.

The submersible pump pushes the underground fluid to the surface. The submersible pumps change rotary energy to kinetic energy and finally to pressure energy.

The fluid is first dragged into the water pump. Then the revolution of the impeller drives the fluid using the diffuser. The pump pushes the liquid to the surface.

🌻Types of submersible pumps

Applications of submersible pumps are numerous. Depending upon the use they are of the following kind

🌻Deep well pumps:

Motor of the pump are linked to the body and is run underwater. It can be fixed and refurbished because of the impact plant. They work fully immersed in water.

🌻Stainless steel pumps:

It has to be immersed in water for it to work. The pump is covered in stainless steel. It can be used in warm to light acidic water.

🌻Bottom suction pumps:

These pumps have guide sleeves under them. Water from the base is applied and efficiently fresh electric motor. These are used in lakes, mining dewatering, pool, and river.

🌻Oil-filled pumps:

These pumps use oil-filled immersion motors. Oil cools the heated motors. It is extensively used in the colder region as oil does not freeze. It moves clean water like that of a lake pool or rivers. It is also used in irrigation, lifting water in wells, residential, and industrial water supply.

🌻Water cooler pumps:

These are used under the water. Freshwater is used to cooling the heated motor. These pumps are used in water, which is of high quality. These are used in the irrigation of farmland, industries, and residences.

🌻Application of submersible pump

  • Submersible pumps are used in irrigating agricultural lands, drinking water supply, oil production, and dewatering. Borehole pumps are used to provide water to the irrigating system.
  • Submersible pumps can operate in pits sumps, wet wells.
  • Submersible pumps are used in pools and industrial plants.
  • Submersible pumps are efficient in pumping out septic tanks. The fluid is transferred to storage tanks through hoses. These are then taken to treatment facilities.
  • Submersible pumps are used to pup slurries. They are used to pump out excess water from industrial sites or construction sites.
  • Submersible pumps are used to pump oil from ground treatment to holding facilities above ground. It is used in inland or offshore oil wells.
  • A submersible pump can pump water from great depth to holding tanks and into homes. A submersible borewell pump is used to pump water.

🌻Selection of submersible pumps

Before selecting the type of pump to be used, one has to keep in mind the following :

• Capacity in GPM
• Static and pumping levels in wells
• Setting required(drop pipe)
• Well I.D. diameter
• Electric characteristics.

🌻Advantages and disadvantages of submersible Pumps.

🌻Advantage of a submersible pump is:

They do not need to be primed as it is fully submerged in the fluid.

Submersible pumps are also efficient as not much energy is spent in moving water. As the pump is already in submerged water, the pressure pushes the water into the pump, thus saving energy.

• There are many types of submersible pumps. And depending upon the use, pumps can be selected. It is also used to handle solids. It can handle all kinds of fluids.
• Submersible pumps do not create noise and are quieter than other pumps as they are submerged in water.
• Water flows through the pump, so there is no spike in pressure because there is no cavitation.

🌻Disadvantages of the submersible pumps

• A submersible pump cannot be used for all purposes. Pumps used at home, in aquarium filters, industrial pumping, sewage pumping, or sump pumps for drainage, are single-stage pumps. Multiple stage pumps are used both in water well and in an oil well.
• The submersible pump has to be submerged fully in the fluid. The fluid that is to be pumped keeps the pumps cool. If it is used outside of the fluid, it will overheat n motor will burn
• If the submersible pump’s gasket raptures or loses integrity, it would leak, causing corrosion.
• Since submersible pumps are submerged in the fluid, it becomes difficult to notice any failure.
• Submersible pumps are expensive.


Mike Brown has done Masters in Hydrology and Water Management. He loves coffee and likes to lecture people on climate change. He plays PUBG when he is not working.

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